DAY 22 – Research versus Development

DAY 22 – Research versus Development


ANAPQUI’s Fair Trade, organic quinoa bread being made for local consumption in Salinas.

As I enter into the quinoa lands which I have grown to know so well both in my initial 2015 field research and subsequent projects and research performed in UMass classrooms, I have a better idea of needs, possibilities and opportunities.  In addition, I spent several years studying women producers in the Fair Trade and coffee industries too.  I feel I have a good grasp of the needs and wants of Bolivia’s Fair Trade women producers.  I am also an economist and have a theoretical grounding in development economics.  And am a natural business developer, marketer and partnership builder.  I teach marketing to graduate students and started my own advertising agency out of college until leaving it to come to Bolivia in 1996 as a Peace Corps volunteer – working in Business Development.  While in Bolivia I developed several businesses, mentored students in being marketing consultants, and worked with Bolivian businesses to create export and national marketing opportunities for natural foods and other products.  Though I’m not an expert, I have an idea of things that can get done in Bolivia, how they can happen and what the opportunities are – especially in a US market.

So how does this impact my role as a researcher?

As I talk with women and hear them complain about low quinoa prices and their desire to make processed food products from their quinoa to create new incomes and jobs – it reminds me of the women coffee farmers who wanted the same thing.  Consulting with Bolivia’s Fair Trade CLAC (Latin American small farmers) representative, Tito Mendoza, he confirms that there are women working with Fair Trade chocolate, sesame seed, and brazil nuts who all want to do that same. – process their raw materials to create alternative industries and not just export raw materials in bulk.  The men however, I found in my coffee research and others in the quinoa industry have confirmed, enjoy the big numbers and ease of bulk export and do not want to bother with complicated food processing.  Though Fair Trade is supposed to work together equally amongst gender, men tend to dominate the decisions about where community funds are invested, and usually disregard the women’s projects – leaving them with no funding or support.  Their ideas stay as ideas – more often than not.

In economic development theory, the next step from the mass export of raw material is the industrialization and processing of that material by the producing country – the is where technology, innovation, marketing, product differentiation, and job creation come into play. In my previous research, I have recommended that farmers invest into product industrialization.

Now in the quinoa fields I ma met with women again, who want to transform product, create jobs for their community, feed the people of Bolivia and export their product to new markets.  However they don’t know where to start – need recipes, equipment, training, packaging, and investment.  They do have the raw materials, land, tiem and desire to make osmethign happen.

One items I brought with me to introduce women to the ways quinoa is being consumed in the US is a case of KIND bars which are made in New York and have popped quinoa as a viable ingredient.  The women were inspired by the bars and wanted to make their own.   When I contacted KIND about this they told me that each month they had a $10,000 fund that women could assess one time if they wrote a project proposal that won a monthly crowd funding competition.  Suddenly the idea of a feminine Fair Trade energy bar made from women-grown Fair Trade quinoa, brazil nuts, sesame seed and chocolate seemed feasible.  There is also Fair Trade honey in Bolivia but there are some restrictions with its use as an export food that need to be explored.  When I mentioned the KIND fund and quinoa bar to the women they are very excited and want to work on the project.

But what project?

I’m here as a researcher – not a developer.  Am I overstepping my role to start forming projects here too?  And where will the project take place?  Who will administer it?  Coordinate it?  See that funds are properly invested?  And of course someone needs to write the grant and get the funds in the first place.  Suddenly this seems really huge.  But it is also a great opportunity.  I think of the food processors I already know- making puffed quinoa, flakes, breads, cookies… Some are Fair Trade cooperatives such as ANAPQUI, or associations such as APQUISA, and others large private businesses such as Coronilla and Frencessa.  Can we share resources, or contract them for the project?  Or do we start with a quinoa community such as Otuyo – which is well formed and has resources (and also inaccessible due to mud) and begin on our own from there?  Tito from Fair Trade CLAC likes the idea and is willing to introduce the project to the other women in Fair Trade.  But it needs more support and collaboration than just that.  I also don’t want to get too distracted from my research.  However the final Part III of my research is in 2018 and that is time to get something set up perhaps – though from the US it would be difficult.

Thais is an open question I am still mulling over – what do you think?

Day 31– Quinoa cooking secrets

Day 31– Quinoa cooking secrets

Dona Emma, Number 1 quinoa chef of Salinas!

Dona Emma, Number 1 quinoa chef of Salinas!

How can you enjoy quinoa? Let me count they ways…. (and the web sites! Here’s two of my favorites with yummy creative recipes from around the world:, This is my own personal cooling tips and observations from the quinoa heartland, the Southern Altiplano of Bolivia…

First off, the key to amazing, fresh, nutty flavored quinoa is to wash it well before cooking with it. I usually put my pre-measured amount of quinoa in a bowl and fill it with about twice the amount of water than quinoa. Then with my hands, I rub it together for a minute or less, using medium pressure with my hands. Soon the water turns be a bit cloudy. I pour off this water (using a sieve to catch the tiny quinoa grains) and fill it again. I rub the grains together a bit more. This time the water stays more clear. The quinoa is clean. I drain off this water (don’t forget the sieve) and set it aside. It is ready for most any recipe.

I am not home in my kitchen so I cannot try out the recipes exactly, but I’ve been cooking with quinoa for 20 years and can give you some tips based on what I observed here. Feel free to experiment yourselves. Most grocery stores now carry quinoa, usually in the aisle next to the rice. It comes in three main colors: white, red, black and mixed. The black is more nutritious and makes for a dramatic presentation when served. I hear that Japan is wacko over this black quinoa right now! All colors work in all recipes, but I prefer to use different colors for different dishes.

The most common way quinoa is consumed outside of Bolivia is prepared like rice (or in the p’ischqa style as they call it here). To make the p’ischqa (quinoa prepared like rice). Simply boil 2 cups of water with a teaspoon of salt added. When the water is at a boil, add the quinoa, stir it around a bit, lower the flame to medium/low and let it simmer partially covered (or uncovered) for about 15 to 20 minutes, or until all of the liquid is absorbed or boiled off. Theh fluff with a fork or mash it around with a spoon (more of the Bolivian way), season with salt to your liking and you are all set. In Bolivia a rich stew of re-hydrated dried llama meet (charque), dried potatoes (chunos), diced fresh potatoes, onions, peas, fava beans, ground powdered yellow and red sweet pepper (aji), garlic is added on top. Or sometimes a thinly sliced pan fried and salted piece of fresh llama meat or grilled llama meat is added, with a few small boiled potatoes on the side. In the US, I often just add a bit of butter to my quinoa p’ischa and it is delicious too. Yum!

My favorite use of the red quinoa is in a cold quinoa salad. This I discovered at my local food co-op and it’s been one of my favorites. Simply cook the red quinoa s described above. Then let it sit aside while you add the ingredients – the idea is to do a sweat-sour combo with some texture. The easy way is to add about 2 tablespoons of good quality Balsamic vinegar to about a cup of quinoa, 2 tablespoons of first cold pressed olive oil (in cold salads the quality of your oils and vinegars make a big difference as the flavors stand out more), ¼ cup of fresh chopped parsley, a handful (1/4 cup or less) of sliced almonds, a handful (1/4 cup or less) of raisins or dried cranberries (these look nicer!), half (or a whole) fresh sliced mango (optional but delicious). Toss it all together and you are done! The taste soaks through it as it sits, so ideally plan to make this about 3 hours before serving so the flavors all soak through. I like to serve it at room temperature too, though it keeps well in the fridge for about a week. Feel free to taste it and adjust it as you wish too. I often make this when I have a last minute potluck to go to that I forgot to get ready for. It is so easy to make, tastes and looks delicious and can be thrown together in just a few minutes!

Black quinoa I like to think of as a fancy dessert quinoa. At the Keene State College Dining Hall, there was a rice pudding version made with black quinoa that was outstanding. I would recommend playing around with different recipes. Here’s one I found: If I was home, I would make it with raw milk from the farmer down the road, add a cinnamon stick and a few cloves while cooking it. And then serve it with a sprinkling of nutmeg. Yummy! Another idea, to bring out the drama of the black quinoa (which has white specs as it cooks) is to add tiny mandarin oranges slices to it.

White quinoa is the most common in the US and here in Bolivia too. The secret to delicious Bolivian quinoa soup is to slice the vegetables really thin, even grating them. A good veggi combo for 6 cups of soup can be 1 onion, 2 carrots, 3 cloves of garlic. Start out by sautéing these veggis in about 2 tablespoons of oil in the bottom of a cook pot. Then add 6 cups of water, a soup bone and/or stew meat (about ½ cup cubed) – this is optional, and about 5 small fresh potatoes (the Bolivians peel theirs but I like to keep on the skins for the nutrition value – my favorites are the tiny purple or red potatoes) and let boil until the potatoes are almost done (about 10 min.). Then add 2 cups of quinoa and let cook another 15 min. Extra ingredients can be added at this time too such as corn, peas, and small cubes of butternut squash. As a special treat, you can also stir in ½ cup of fresh chopped spinach. To serve the soup, cut one of the boiled potatoes in half and place both halves in each bowl. Pour the soup over this and garnish it with parsley. Bolivians like to eat this soup as a morning belly warmer and also as a favorite lunch dish. In the city they will often have a fresh roll they will dip in the soup as they eat it. Most folks will also add a generous teaspoon of fresh, hand-ground hot sauce to their bowl of soup. Provecho! (good eating).